Вiochemical blood test
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme that belongs to the class of transferases, ie to those that regulate the transfer of functional groups and molecular residues from one molecule to another. This enzyme is produced mainly by the cells of the liver, as well as the kidneys, heart, skeletal muscle, pancreas, and others. If ALT-rich cells are damaged or destroyed, the enzyme is released into the bloodstream, which increases its activity in the blood. That is why an increase in ALT may indicate the presence of cytolytic syndrome, but does not indicate how severely affected the organ.

Indications for the definition of ALT: diagnosis of liver disease, monitoring the dynamics and treatment of viral hepatitis, differential diagnosis of hemolytic and hepatic jaundice, differential diagnosis of diseases of the biliary tract and pancreas, donor examination.

An increase in ALT levels is observed when:

Decrease in ALT level is observed at:


Norm (in SI units):

women - 0.0-34.0 IU / liter
men - 0,0-45,0 U / l


Albumin is a family of globular proteins, about 50% of which is serum albumin. These proteins are contained in blood plasma, whose functions are transport (transport of various ligands, such as fatty acids, cations, hormones, pharmacological drugs); regulation of oncotic blood pressure; and is a protein reserve.

Indications for albumin: assessment of protein metabolism and nutritional status, diagnosis of liver diseases, especially those associated with proteinuria, as well as diagnosis and monitoring of liver cirrhosis, tuberculosis, nephrotic syndrome, diabetic nephropathy, tumors, rheumatoid diseases.

An increase in albumin levels is observed when:

Decrease in albumin level is observed at:


Norm (in SI units): 35.0-52.0 g / l

Children
0-4 days - 2.8-4.4 g / dp (28-44 g / l)
4 days-14 years - 3.8-5.4 g / dp (38-54 g / l)
14-18 years - 3.2-4.5 g / dp (32-45 g / l)
Adults - 3.5-5.2 g / dp (35-52 g / l)


Amylase is a digestive enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of polysaccharides, such as starch and glycogen, to maltose. This enzyme is produced by the salivary glands and the pancreas. Some other organs are also able to produce this enzyme, such as the liver, ovaries and intestines. In the serum are secreted mainly pancreatic amylase and salivary amylase. The study of amylase levels is a fairly common method of diagnosing diseases of the pancreas.

Indications for the determination of amylase: diagnosis of diseases of the pancreas and salivary glands, cystic fibrosis, acute abdomen syndrome.

An increase in amylase levels is observed when:

A decrease in amylase levels is observed when:


Norm (in SI units): 13.0-53.0 U / l


Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is an endogenous enzyme involved in amino acid metabolism. The enzyme is produced by cells of the heart and liver, as well as kidneys and muscles. Normally, only a small portion of AST enters the bloodstream, and an increase in levels occurs in the case of organ damage by cytolysis. Estimation of the amount of AST is used to diagnose myocardial and liver damage.

Indications for the definition of AST: diagnosis of myocardial pathologies, such as heart attack, liver disease, muscle pathology, donor studies.

An increase in the level of ACT is observed when: